NEW: West Nile Virus/EEE Update
Monday, August 18, 2014
Department of Environmental Management has announced that one pool collected in South Kingstown tested positive for West Nile Virus (WNV), as was reported on August 14. These test results are from a trap night on August 4.
Samples of WNV are expected during the latter part of the summer and into early fall. The remaining 150 pools trapped August 4 are confirmed negative for mosquito-borne viruses. Results from the 96 pools from 34 traps set August 12 are pending at the RI Department of Health (HEALTH) Laboratory.
To date, there has been one isolation of WNV in Rhode Island. EEE has not been isolated this season in Rhode Island. However, both diseases are currently present in our area. Both have recently been isolated from mosquito samples in Massachusetts, and WNV has been isolated from Connecticut.
Protecting from West Nile
Throughout the mosquito season, residents are encouraged to protect themselves by eliminating mosquito breeding grounds and avoiding mosquito bites. Personal protection is the first line of defense against mosquitoes that can carry diseases such as West Nile Virus and EEE and is by far the most effective way of avoiding infection.
Eliminate mosquito breeding grounds from yards by removing anything that holds standing water, such as old tires, buckets, junk and debris, clean gutters so that they drain correctly, and maintain swimming pools properly. Mosquitoes breed in standing water. Just one cup of standing water can produce hundreds of mosquitoes. Avoid mosquito bites by using screens on windows and doors, covering up at dawn and dusk, and putting mosquito netting over playpens and baby carriages when they are outside. Also, use mosquito repellent, but with no more than 30 percent DEET. Do not use repellent on infants.
Mosquitoes are trapped every week statewide by DEM staff and tested at the HEALTH Laboratory. DEM will normally report mosquito test results once a week on a routine basis, with additional reports as necessary. Test results from mosquitoes trapped this week will be included in next week's announcement. Positive mosquito test results will generally trigger additional trapping to assess risk.
One pool of mosquitoes captured on July 21 from a trap set on Block Island tested positive for Jamestown Canyon Virus (JCV). While JCV rarely causes human illness, this finding indicates that environmental conditions are appropriate for virus transmission. This should serve as a reminder to Rhode Islanders that other, more serious mosquito-borne diseases become more prevalent in the latter part of the summer and into the fall.
For online information about mosquito-borne diseases, go to DEM's website and click on “Public Health Updates,” or go to the HEALTH website and click on “E” (Eastern Equine Encephalitis) or “W” (West Nile Virus) under “Health Topics.”
Related Slideshow: The History of Disease Outbreaks in New England
New England Smallpox 1633
European settlers brought Smallpox to America in the 17th century, and it is estimated that more than 70% of the Native American population in the northeast was wiped out by the disease between 1633 and 1634.
Smallpox has been eradicated from the United States for over 60 years.
Boston Smallpox 1721
Nearly 6,000 Bostonians contracted Smallpox in 1721, with 844 of them ultimately dying from the disease.
The Smallpox outbreak in Boston incited great debate about the use of inoculation in the United States, a practice that is obviously observed today.
With a near 80% mortality rate among those infected, "The White Plague" struck worldwide and at home in the United States, particularly in industrial areas.
According to research by the Harvard Medical Library, nearly 40% of deaths of working-class people in urban American cities were cause by Tuberculosis.
A worldwide pandemic that struck during World War 1, the "Spanish Flu" caused mass destruction in the United States and abroad.
20 million people across the globe are estimated to have died from the flu pandemic, with 675,000 Americans among the death toll.
58,000 cases of Polio and over 3,000 resulting deaths were reported in the 1952 epidemic in the United States.
The disease affects the nervous system, and President Franklin D. Roosevelt is probably the most notable person to live with the disease.
Polio has been eradicated in the United States for over 30 years.
Asian Flu 1957
While not as lethal as the 1918 Influenza Pandemic, the "Asian Flu" caused almost 70,000 American deaths in before it was eradicated.
The Asian Flu is caused by the same virus that causes bird flu and swine flu.
Holy Cross Hepatitis 1969
After being trounced on the second Saturday of the 1969 college football season by Dartmouth, the Holy Cross football team had each member get blood work done to determine if there was a medical reason for their poor performance.
90 out of 97 players on the team had elevated levels of a liver enzyme, and 30 of those 90 players showed symptoms of Hepatitis-A.
Dr. Leonard Morse, who went on to become the Commissioner of Public Health in Worcester, helped determine the cause of the sickness- a contaminated drinking water supply that only the football players had accessed.
The remainder of the season was canceled (an NCAA first) and the 30 players showing symptoms were quarantined in a single dormitory.
AIDS Epidemic 1980s
While not documented until 1981, the HIV virus and AIDS continues to be one of the most debilitating diseases alive today in the United States.
Progress has been made over the years, as education about the virus and how to prevent it have brought the world from "AIDS is Preventable" to "AIDS is Treatable."
NH Hepatitis 2012
30 people were diagnosed with Hepatitis-C in 2012 after a former hospital worker stole syringes and intentionally contaminated them with the disease, of which he was afflicted.
After pleading guilty to charges in New Hampshire, the perpetrator was sentenced to 39 months in jail.
VT Whooping Cough 2012
Whooping cough- also known as Pertussis- is difficult to diagnose initially because it starts with cold-like symptoms and progresses into a life threatening illness.
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